Gingival recession (uncovered roots) is a shift of the gingival margin towards the apex of the tooth and is due to two mechanisms: the trauma caused by incorrect brushing technique, the inflammation associated with periodontal disease.
The mucogingival surgery is a root coverage procedure that protects the tooth health, reduces tooth hypersensitivity and improves the aesthetics of the smile.
Exposed roots have an increased dentinal sensitivity both with cold, hot food and towards home oral hygiene, such as to prevent a correct tooth brushing that will have gingivitis and then a further retraction as a likely consequence.
The exposed roots favor the occurrence of root caries (decay of the collar). Furthermore, they create imperfections smile due to elongation of the teeth.
There are several of the gingival reconstruction techniques, and every recession has its specific intervention. It should also be said that it is not always possible to restore an acceptable gingival level, but everything is pretty predictable.